This volume offers contributions of the summer school held at Kinki University in Osaka in 2007. It contains six lectures of invited speakers and six poster summaries. The lecture notes cover basic aspects of the fields of quantum computing, the phenomenon of entanglement and quantum error-correcting codes. It also contains a discussion of some more specialized topics connected with topological quantum computing, holonomic quantum computing and playing games in quantum mechanical settings. All contributions are written in a way that allows readers with only a small amount of experience in the field to comfortably grasp the basics of the presented topics.