European Mathematical Society - 86 Geophysics
https://euro-math-soc.eu/msc/86-geophysics
enMathematics for Planet Earth
https://euro-math-soc.eu/review/mathematics-planet-earth
<div class="field field-name-field-review-review field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><div class="tex2jax"><p>Since 2018 Springer has started publishing this book series Mathematics of Planet Earth (MPE), and there are already six volumes by the end of 2019. The present book is volume 5 and is somewhat representative for the idea behind the whole book series.</p>
<p>The idea of the series is to describe and model several global problems that can be in any area, like climate change, epidemics, biodiversity, food security, urban societies, the Internet of Things, and many more. The list of topics is very broad and often require a multidisciplinary approach. A major objective in creating this book series is to raise interest and stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration. Therefore the papers of the books in this series are intended to be written and to be read by a broad range of pure or applied mathematicians, engineers, scientists, and other researchers. They are at a level that is not elementary but neither too technical so that it can be understood even by a beginning researcher from a different discipline. Solutions need not, or are only partially provided. The chapters are both introductions to the topic discussed and invitations to work on it.</p>
<p>While other volumes in the series were dealing with a specific topic like modeling of infectious diseases, tropical climate dynamics, energy transfer in atmosphere and oceans, and dynamics of biological systems, this volume has the generic MPE title of the series. Its subtitle Protecting Our Planet, Learning from the Past, Safeguarding for the Future can refer to anything and is not really enlightening the contents either. The reason is that this volume covers several different topics. There are thirteen papers divided over four parts: (1) Geo- and Physical sciences, (2) Life Sciences, (3) Ecology and Evolution, and (4) Socio-Economics and Infrastructure. Each part of almost a hundred pages consists of three or four papers. All of the papers were invited and refereed and can be read independently as an introduction to the problem discussed. Discussing each paper in some detail would be too much for this review, so what follows is just a birds eye view of the topics.</p>
<p>Learning from the past is applicable to the first paper in part 1. It takes data from glacial cycles in the Pleistocene Epoch to investigate the influence of CO2 by proposing different models that take care of the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit, precession, and inclination of its axis. This allows to predict the corresponding exposure to sunshine, the melting of ice, the volume of Northern Atlantic Deep Water, and other parameters. The resulting dynamical systems with bifurcation and limit cycles is investigated to make predictions about our future. The second paper is somewhat related and investigates the effect of melting of polar ice over the last 700 Kyears which changes the volume of solid land and the volume of water on the surface. Finding patterns in the evolution of precipitation of the third paper is more difficult since this has much more variable dynamics, both in time and in space.</p>
<p>In the Life Science part, we find a paper on the relation between malaria and climate change. The latter influences air-water temperature differences which influences the survival of the mosquito, and hence the spreading of malaria. Another paper models the spread of Buruli ulcer disease in Ghana and how the human-human and human-environment interactions influence that. These two papers obviously focus on problems of the African continent. A much more general view is taken in a paper that analyses the massive amount of data in the health sector that is becoming available. The purpose is to use this to obtain probabilistic data-driven models for some phenomena like food poisoning, transmission of avian influenza etc.</p>
<p>Ecology and Environment is represented by three papers. It is known that ecosystems are highly nonlinear and have several stable and unstable states to which it evolves under different circumstances. Extreme climate events or human intervention can result in a malfunctioning ecosystem. If we have proper models and can find the regions in parameter space in which some of these local states are embedded, perhaps we can we make these changes more gradual or partially prevent them. Dryland ecosystems are used as a case study. A paper about biodiversity is stressing the importance of having parameters for the number of different species, but also for how evenly they are distributed. In another paper several models for population dynamics at different scales are proposed to calculate an extinction risk.</p>
<p>The last part has contributions about Socio-economic Systems like the modelling of food systems, which, at a global scale, involves production, distribution, and consumption with complex network interactions. Bad management may lead to malnutrition and overweight existing simultaneously in different regions. A second paper models how the ecosystem can benefit from natural capital. Optimal management can be obtained from a dynamical optimization problem. For example what should be the optimal fishing quota for a steady state equilibrium? The Infrastructure is the subject of the remaining two papers. Network and scheduling analysis is used to obtain quantitative models to manage the restoration of infrastructure after extreme events. With the Internet of Things a massive network is created that should be managed to optimize urban societies. Transportation and municipal water services are used as case studies.</p>
<p>This quick survey illustrates the general set-up. It definitely illustrates the diversity of problems and methods that we have to deal with to cope with the enormous challenges that result from an increasing globalisation. Problems become very large scale, involve large networks, and become highly nonlinear. The parameters are changing drastically faster and the systems become very sensitive to small changes when they approach unstable states. If we ever want to control and manage all these effects, it will need substantial scientific research. And time is pressing. Here we meet several examples of research in action, trying to solve practical problems. Let's hope this is a wake-up call and that this will result in joining forces worldwide and across specialisations, instead of driving researchers away from each others into their own abstract unworldly niches with the only purpose to publishing papers.</p>
</div></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-field-review-reviewer field-type-text field-label-inline clearfix"><div class="field-label">Reviewer: </div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">Adhemar Bultheel</div></div></div><div class="field field-name-field-review-desc field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><div class="tex2jax"><p>This is volume five of the book series Mathematics of Planet Earth in which mathematicians pure and applied describe mathematical methods and techniques to model global problems and describe them at a level that is not too technical and not too elementary. Hence it is hoped that they will raise the interest to work on these problems.</p>
</div></div></div></div><span class="vocabulary field field-name-field-review-author field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-inline clearfix"><h2 class="field-label">Author: </h2><ul class="vocabulary-list"><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/author/hans-kaper" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Hans Kaper</a></li><li class="vocabulary-links field-item odd"><a href="/author/fred-roberts" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Fred Roberts</a></li><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/author/eds-1" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">(eds.)</a></li></ul></span><span class="vocabulary field field-name-field-review-publisher field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-inline clearfix"><h2 class="field-label">Publisher: </h2><ul class="vocabulary-list"><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/publisher/springer-nature" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Springer Nature</a></li></ul></span><div class="field field-name-field-review-pub field-type-number-integer field-label-inline clearfix"><div class="field-label">Published: </div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">2019</div></div></div><div class="field field-name-field-review-isbn field-type-text field-label-inline clearfix"><div class="field-label">ISBN: </div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">978-3-030-22043-3 (hbk); 978-3-030-22044-0 (ebk)</div></div></div><div class="field field-name-field-review-price field-type-text field-label-inline clearfix"><div class="field-label">Price: </div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">€ 103.99 (hbk); € 84.99 (ebk)</div></div></div><div class="field field-name-field-review-pages field-type-number-integer field-label-inline clearfix"><div class="field-label">Pages: </div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">394</div></div></div><span class="vocabulary field field-name-field-review-class field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><ul class="vocabulary-list"><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/imu/dynamical-systems-and-ordinary-differential-equations" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Dynamical Systems and Ordinary Differential Equations</a></li><li class="vocabulary-links field-item odd"><a href="/imu/mathematics-science-and-technology" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Mathematics in Science and Technology</a></li></ul></span><div class="field field-name-field-review-website field-type-text field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><a href="https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783030220433" title="Link to web page">https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783030220433</a></div></div></div><span class="vocabulary field field-name-field-review-msc field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><ul class="vocabulary-list"><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/msc/86-geophysics" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">86 Geophysics</a></li></ul></span><span class="vocabulary field field-name-field-review-msc-full field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><ul class="vocabulary-list"><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/msc-full/86-06" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">86-06</a></li></ul></span><span class="vocabulary field field-name-field-review-msc-other field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><ul class="vocabulary-list"><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/msc-full/86axx" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">86Axx</a></li><li class="vocabulary-links field-item odd"><a href="/msc-full/00b15" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">00b15</a></li></ul></span>Mon, 25 Nov 2019 09:35:01 +0000Adhemar Bultheel49949 at https://euro-math-soc.euhttps://euro-math-soc.eu/review/mathematics-planet-earth#commentsInvisible in the storm: The role of mathematics in understanding weather
https://euro-math-soc.eu/review/invisible-storm-role-mathematics-understanding-weather
<div class="field field-name-field-review-review field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><div class="tex2jax"><p>This book gives a deep insight of the mathematics involved in the forecast of weather. Being addressed to the general public, with a very leisurely and friendly style, it starts by accounting the history and personalities involved in the developing of the scientific understanding of the weather processes over the Earth. </p>
<p>The author explains the equations that govern the weather, which include seven variables: velocity (of wind), time, pressure, moisture, and density of air. The mathematical bits are separated from the main text and are commented without much detail, not to deter the non-mathematical reader. All names of people involved and the contributions and lives of each of them appear along the way. </p>
<p>The equations are hard to analyze (which is the reason of the difficulty of forecasting), so until the appearance of efficient computers able to do these calculations, it was difficult to do reliable predictions. But the use of mathematics in weather dates back from the beginning of the twentieth century, with the pioneering work of Vilhelm Bjerknes, who analyzed the behaviour of the equations for the vorticity, which involve less number of variables. This together with the improvement of the recollection of empirical atmospheric data at locations, and the improvement of the transmission of data to a central point, allowed to depict the well-known meteorological charts that we are so familiarized to watch on the TV News. These have been used since the beginning of the XX century to predict qualitatively the weather for several days ahead. Nowadays, this is done by the use of computing power, by discretizing the set of differential equations involved and treating them numerically.</p>
<p>Large scale phenomena, like the effect of the rotation of the Earth in the circulation of great masses of air or the formation of cyclones, and more local phenomena, like the movement of clouds or the sea breeze, are treated in the book. The authors also explain the theory of chaos, which says that in non-linear problems, even small inaccuracies in initial data can lead to very large deviations in the evolution of the solution. This is inherent to the analysis of weather, making impossible to get accurate solutions for more than 10 days ahead even with the best of the actual supercomputers.</p>
<p>The second half of the XX century witnessed the raise of pure mathematical methods to analyze the equations of meteorology, together with the simultaneous appearance and use of computers. The study of hydrostatic and geostrophic phenomena gave a way to understand the qualitative behaviour of weather and make sense of the intractability of its non-linearity. On the other direction, there has been a feedback from the studies of meteorology to pure mathematical areas, like the Lorenz attractor appearing in Dynamical Systems.</p>
<p>This book is about the role of mathematics in explaining why it is possible to understand weather and climate, even in the presence of chaos. There are degrees of unpredictability, but there are also many stabilizing mechanisms and, most importantly, there is mathematics to quantify the rules. The authors have done a brilliant work to collect a huge amount of historical information, as well as mathematical information, but keeping always a level in the explanations that makes the text accessible to undergraduate students in the first years, and even to people not so familiar with mathematics. All in all, this is a very interesting and enjoyable reading.</p>
</div></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-field-review-reviewer field-type-text field-label-inline clearfix"><div class="field-label">Reviewer: </div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">Vicente Muñoz</div></div></div><div class="field field-name-field-review-legacy-affiliation field-type-text field-label-inline clearfix"><div class="field-label">Affiliation: </div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">UCM</div></div></div><div class="field field-name-field-review-desc field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><div class="tex2jax"><p>This book is about the role of mathematics in explaining why it is possible to understand weather and climate, even in the presence of chaos. There are degrees of unpredictability, but there are also many stabilizing mechanisms and, most importantly, there is mathematics to quantify the rules. The authors have done a brilliant work to collect a huge amount of historical information, as well as mathematical information, but keeping always a level in the explanations that makes the text accessible to undergraduate students in the first years, and even to people not so familiar with mathematics. All in all, this is a very interesting and enjoyable reading.</p>
</div></div></div></div><span class="vocabulary field field-name-field-review-author field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-inline clearfix"><h2 class="field-label">Author: </h2><ul class="vocabulary-list"><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/author/ian-roulstone-john-norbury" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">ian roulstone & john norbury</a></li></ul></span><span class="vocabulary field field-name-field-review-publisher field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-inline clearfix"><h2 class="field-label">Publisher: </h2><ul class="vocabulary-list"><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/publisher/princeton-university-press" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">princeton university press</a></li></ul></span><div class="field field-name-field-review-pub field-type-number-integer field-label-inline clearfix"><div class="field-label">Published: </div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">2013</div></div></div><div class="field field-name-field-review-isbn field-type-text field-label-inline clearfix"><div class="field-label">ISBN: </div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">978-0-691-15272-1</div></div></div><span class="vocabulary field field-name-field-review-msc field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><ul class="vocabulary-list"><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/msc/86-geophysics" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">86 Geophysics</a></li></ul></span><span class="vocabulary field field-name-field-review-msc-full field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><ul class="vocabulary-list"><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/msc-full/86a10" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">86a10</a></li></ul></span>Wed, 05 Jun 2013 10:29:37 +0000Anonymous45512 at https://euro-math-soc.euhttps://euro-math-soc.eu/review/invisible-storm-role-mathematics-understanding-weather#commentsMathematical Geophysics - An Introduction to Rotating Fluids and the Navier-Stokes Equations
https://euro-math-soc.eu/review/mathematical-geophysics-introduction-rotating-fluids-and-navier-stokes-equations
<div class="field field-name-field-review-review field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><div class="tex2jax"><p>Making the subtitle more specific, this book provides a transparent introduction to the mathematical analysis of rotating incompressible fluids described by the evolutionary Navier-Stokes equations (NSEs) with dominant Coriolis forces. The authors first discuss physical aspects related to the investigated geophysical model. Then, after recalling necessary facts on function spaces, the theory of weak solutions related to the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is provided. Next, NSEs with significant Coriolis forces are treated in various geometries: in the whole space, in domains with periodic boundary conditions and in domains bounded by two parallel plates. The final part focuses on the boundary layer phenomena related to the investigated systems and to some other relevant problems. This well organized and nicely presented book can be recommended to everybody interested in mathematical issues related to the Navier-Stokes equations and to geophysical fluid mechanics, as well as to the stability theory for dynamical systems described by systems of partial differential equations.</p>
</div></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-field-review-reviewer field-type-text field-label-inline clearfix"><div class="field-label">Reviewer: </div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">jmal</div></div></div><span class="vocabulary field field-name-field-review-author field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-inline clearfix"><h2 class="field-label">Author: </h2><ul class="vocabulary-list"><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/author/j-y-chemin" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">j.-y. chemin</a></li><li class="vocabulary-links field-item odd"><a href="/author/b-desjardins" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">b. desjardins</a></li><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/author/i-gallagher" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">i. gallagher</a></li><li class="vocabulary-links field-item odd"><a href="/author/e-grenier" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">e. grenier</a></li></ul></span><span class="vocabulary field field-name-field-review-publisher field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-inline clearfix"><h2 class="field-label">Publisher: </h2><ul class="vocabulary-list"><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/publisher/clarendon-press-oxford-oxford-lecture-series-mathematics" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">clarendon press, oxford: oxford lecture series in mathematics</a></li></ul></span><div class="field field-name-field-review-pub field-type-number-integer field-label-inline clearfix"><div class="field-label">Published: </div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">2006</div></div></div><div class="field field-name-field-review-isbn field-type-text field-label-inline clearfix"><div class="field-label">ISBN: </div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">0-19-857133-X </div></div></div><div class="field field-name-field-review-price field-type-text field-label-inline clearfix"><div class="field-label">Price: </div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">GBP 45,00</div></div></div><span class="vocabulary field field-name-field-review-msc field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><ul class="vocabulary-list"><li class="vocabulary-links field-item even"><a href="/msc/86-geophysics" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">86 Geophysics</a></li></ul></span>Sun, 23 Oct 2011 11:38:44 +0000Anonymous40025 at https://euro-math-soc.eu